Reality
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Science
Big Bang Universe
Universe Dynamic
TimeSpace
SpaceTime
Relativity
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Particles 1
Particles 2
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Waves
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Complexity
Link Five
Reference
Glossary

SPACETIME
Einstein Described SpaceTime as Exhibiting
Four Dimensions  Three of Space with Time

In the Universe of Classical Mechanics (Newton's world), Space is understood as three dimensional (Euclidean) and Time is treated as universal and constant. Time therefore, is independent of the state of motion of an observer. In this relativistic context of a conjugate pair, time cannot be separated from the three dimensions of space. This is true because the observed rate at which time passes for an object depends on the object's velocity relative to the observer and also on the strength of gravitational fields, which can slow the passage of time.
Until the beginning of the 20th century, time was believed to be independent of motion, progressing at a fixed rate in all reference frames. Later experiments revealed that time slows at higher speeds of the reference frame relative to another reference frame. This is known as time dilation. Einstein explained this phenomena of relativity in his special relativity theory. Many experiments have confirmed time dilation, such as the relativistic decay of muon's from cosmic ray showers.. Other experiments aboard the Space Shuttle showed that atomic clocks slow relative to synchronized Earthbound inertial clocks. The duration of time can therefore vary according to events and reference frames.
Physics today, understands SpaceTime to be any mathematical model that combines Space and Time into a single continuum with Space existing in three dimensions and Time playing the role of a fourth dimension, a different sort from the spatial dimensions.
In 1916 Albert Einstein published what he named, "The General Theory of Relativity". General relativity, a geometric theory of gravitation, is a mathematical description of gravitation in modern physics. This theory generalizes Special Relativity, an Einstein theory, and Newton's law of universal gravitation. General Relativity is a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of Space & Time, or what now has come to be named the State of SpaceTime. According to General Relativity the curvature of SpaceTime is directly related to the energy and momentum of the "Matter" or "Radiation" present. The relation is specified by Einstein field equations, a mathematical system of partial differential equations incorporating tensors. The equations are nonlinear and very difficult to solve, that is, it takes a mathematical wizard to understand these equations.

SpaceTime
Special Relativity manifests a paradigm in the convert ion of Energy to Matter.
E=mc2
General Relativity expresses THE SPEED OF LIGHT as a constant. The effects of Gravitation are attributed to SpaceTime Curvature.

SpaceTime & the Speed of Light
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted "c", is a universal physical constant. Its value is 299,792,458 meters per second or in empirical units this speed is approximately 186,282 miles per second. According to Special Relativity, "c" is the maximum speed at which all energy, matter, and information in the Universe can travel. It is the speed at which all massless particles and associated fields, including electromagnetic radiation (light) travels in vacuum. It is also the speed of gravity (gravitational waves). Such particles and waves travel at "c" regardless of the motion of the source or the inertial frame of reference of the observer.

SpaceTime & the Speed of Light 
Gravity
Gravitation is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature. In modern physics, the phenomenon of gravitation is most accurately described by the General Theory of Relativity (Einstein). Einstein described the phenomenon as a consequence of the curvature of SpaceTime that governs the motion of inertial objects. The simpler The simpler Newton law of universal gravitation provides an accurate approximation for most physical situations including calculations as critical as spacecraft trajectory.
Gravitation, or gravity, is the natural phenomenon by which physical bodies appear to attract each other with a force proportional to their masses. It is most commonly experienced as the agent that gives weight to objects with mass and causes them to fall to the ground when dropped. The phenomenon of gravitation itself, however, is a byproduct of a more fundamental phenomenon described by General Relativity, which suggests that spacetime is curved according to the presence of matter through a yet to be understood mechanism. 
METAPHYSICS: Reality defined in the terms of Things, Entities, Beings.
In Metaphysics we attempt to look at the state of SpaceTime, not from the view point of mathematical quantities, but rather from a consideration of the relationship of things. From the previous pages of the web site we have discussed that things emerge from their roots (properties of TimeSpace). We find this to be true with the conversion of Matter from Energy. This occurs, according to Einstein's General Relativity theory, at a State of SpaceTime. Einstein, recognizing that matter along with the resultant force of gravity, is associated with Time & Space, however, distinguish as a State in Time & Space. Further, he defined the State to occur in a specific constant time interval (speed of light). Accordingly, he elected to name the State as SpaceTime (three dimensions with time).


Ordinary Matter makes up but a small percentage of the Energy of the Universe. Science has yet to understand very much about Dark energy.
Metaphysically, Matter, either Dark or Ordinary Matter, manifests as substance through the emergence of Time & Space.
Like all substance they carry their roots and exhibit attributes.
In the search for particles science uses an Atom Smasher (LHC) to isolate and identify the traces of these particles. Many particles have been defined using these tools. However, both the Higgs and Graviton particle have been very difficult to isolate using these tools. A major problem lies with the tools themselves, but additionally, the problem lies in the nature of the particle (fields). In the case of the Higgs boson (a field), the particle's duality is very difficulty to manifest as a particle (standing quantum wave) because of the magnitude of energy to have it manifest in the accelerator. Gravity, also a boson, is believed to manifest as a Graviton. Gravity experiences an a somewhat identical problem in its manifestation. Gravity, however, adds an additional component of difficulty in as much as it has spin of two (2) integers which means it is spread across two (2) periods of SpaceTime and is not conducive to the instruments used to detect these particles. 
Ordinary Matter makes up but a small percentage of the Energy of the Universe. Science has yet to understand very much about Dark energy.
Metaphysically, Matter, either Dark or Ordinary Matter, manifests as substance through the emergence of Time & Space.
Like all substance they carry their roots and exhibit attributes.
In the search for particles science uses an Atom Smasher (LHC) to isolate and identify the traces of these particles. Many particles have been defined using these tools. However, both the Higgs and Graviton particle have been very difficult to isolate using these tools. A major problem lies with the tools themselves, but additionally, the problem lies in the nature of the particle (fields). In the case of the Higgs boson (a field), the particle's duality is very difficulty to manifest as a particle (standing quantum wave) because of the magnitude of energy to have it manifest in the accelerator. Gravity, also a boson, is believed to manifest as a Graviton. Gravity experiences an a somewhat identical problem in its manifestation. Gravity, however, adds an additional component of difficulty in as much as it has spin of two (2) integers which means it is spread across two (2) periods of SpaceTime and is not conducive to the instruments used to detect these particles.
Mass
Attribute
Physics defines mass, that is, inertial mass (a property of matter by which matter remains at rest or in uniform motion in the same straight line), as the quantitative measure of an object (particle or composite) resistance to acceleration (change of velocity).
In everyday usage, mass is referred to as "weight", measured in pounds or kilograms,
(a person's weight may be stated as 75 kg).
The scientific use of the term "weight" refers to the gravitational force (not mass) acting on a given body—the gravitational pull or opposing force.
Mass is an intrinsic property of a body that never changes regardless of the environment.
A person's weight (gravitation pull) on Earth is larger than on the Moonweight depends on environment, while mass does not.

Ordinary Matter
Substance
Higgs boson
Particle of Duality
The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of Physics as it conforms to the Schrodinger equation.
It was first predicted in the 1960s, but has been very illusive.
On 4 July 2012, two separate experimental teams at the LHC
(Large Hadrons Collide) announced that they had each independently confirmed the existence of a previously unknown boson of mass.
(See page
Mass Attributes) 
Gravity
Attribute
Gravity is commonly understood as the agent that gives weight to objects possessed with the attribute of mass. As an agent, gravity causes objects to fall to the ground when dropped.
In the scientific sense, gravitation is a phenomenon (a force) by which physical bodies appear to attract other bodies with a force proportional to their masses. 

Origin of Mass  The Higgs 
