Reality Roots

Conjugate Pair

Existence & Form
Time & Space
Frequency & Wavelength

Reality Roots
Shape of Nature
Nature's Symphony from the Vibrating Waves of TimeSpace
Dancing Entities to the Rhythm of Emergence
"Classical" Systems Waltzing on Space Waves Turbulent Jitterbug Particles in "Quantum" Time

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Celestial Bodies








Particles -- Atoms -- Molecules

A Brief History of Quantum Mechanics
Understanding Particles--Atoms--Molecules
These are smallest Entities of TimeSpace Reality
Quantum indivisible particles which structure as atoms and bond in molecules
collectively become the composites of complex Entities
from which emerge the multitude of all the things of TimeSpace Reality .
The atom is a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons (except in the case of hydrogen-1, which is the only stable nuclide with no neutrons). The electrons of an atom are bound to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force. Likewise, a group of atoms can remain bound to each other by chemical bonds based on the same force, forming a molecule. An atom containing an equal number of protons and electrons is electrically neutral, otherwise it is positively or negatively charged and is known as an ion. An atom is classified according to the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus: the number of protons determines the chemical element, and the number of neutrons determines the isotope of the element.

What is Matter?
How Matter can be defined:
Common Definition--The common understanding of matter is anything that has both Mass and Volume (takes up space).
The scientific explanation of why matter occupies space is defined by the Pauli exclusion principle.

With respect to relativity-- Mass is not an additive quantity, but the energy-momentum (anything not purely gravity) of a system that quantifies the amount of matter.
Physical & Chemical Structure -- Atoms define the basic element structure of matter while molecules combine atoms in a multiplicity of structures to form the many composites of matter.
Substructure --
Positively charged protons, neutral charged neutrons, and negatively charged electrons are the building blocks of atoms.
Quantum Structure -- At a microscopic level, the constituent "particles" of matter such as protons, neutrons and electrons obey the laws of quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality. At an even deeper level, protons and neutrons are made up of quarks and the force fields ( gluons) that bind them together (see chart).
Subatomic Particles -- On the scale of elementary particles, ordinary matter is everything that is composed of elementary fermions, quarks and leptons.


Quarks and Leptons

Under the "quarks and leptons" definition, the elementary and composite particles made of the
Quarks (in purple) and
Leptons (in green)
would be "matter".
The gauge bosons (in red)
would not be "matter".
However, interaction energy inherent to composite particles (for example, gluons involved in neutrons and protons) contribute to the mass of ordinary matter.

Standard Model
Understanding Atoms - Elements - Molecules - Compounds

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