Reality Roots

Conjugate Pair

Existence & Form
Time & Space
Frequency & Wavelength

Reality Roots
Shape of Nature
Nature's Symphony from the Vibrating Waves of TimeSpace
Dancing Entities to the Rhythm of Emergence
"Classical" Systems Waltzing on Space Waves Turbulent Jitterbug Particles in "Quantum" Time

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Celestial Bodies








(See diagram)

Entities of the Universe physically change as related to
quantity, position, velocity, acceleration, etc. in Space & Time

Entities of the Universe essentially change as related to
their Substance and Attributes.

Emergence to Perfection
Physical & Substanial Change

Agency rules in the realm of change. Humans, intuitively and through experience, come to understand and accept causality as a result of an agent, the cause, that produces an effect, the result.

Causality is the relationship between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the second event is understood as a consequence of the first. In this understanding of the consequential termination of these events, humans recognize the termination as an end, a result or an effect. Thus, humans, in their recognition of this dynamic have come to call it change.

Real Change is Fundamental to All things of the Universe.
Metaphysically in Substantial Change.
Scientifically in Space & Time Change.

Metaphysical View - Substantial Change:
In the philosophy section of "Reality Roots", under the page "Things" we discussed and described, " what it is to be real". In our discussion we emphasized that to be "real" is not the result of a thing having  material, or because it is acting, but because each being "is", because it exists, because it possesses in reality an "Act of Existence".

That things change is a fact, which is also directly known through our senses. Some philosophers from the past have found difficulty admitting both these statements at the same time (that things exist and change). Essentialists, in defining reality as that which is "what it is", have combined permanence with self-identity to the extent that they consider changing to be unreal. Others have even gone so far as to assert that all change is an illusion. Such was the position taken by Parmenides who lived in the early 5th century BCE. According to this Greek philosopher, he argues that if the "real" or if being "is", that which is "what it is" (by definition) and at the same time "what it is Not" (by supposition), then change is an illusion. Clearly this statement is a contradiction, the supposition is false. From a different point of view we can consider  that, to change is to become other than what a thing "was". So if we conclude , that if the real is, "what it is", and that which is other than, "what it is" (or opposite to ) the "real", then the "real' is nothing. Therefore, change would be possible only if the opposite of the "real" were also "real". Obviously, this is false, but if it were true change would be impossible. Over the centuries this very simple position, however, in more elaborated forms, has been held at various times.  

Heraclitius, a Greek philosopher of the 6th century BCE, was so impressed with the unity and ceaseless changing activity of the Universe that he not only found change to be real, but further denied that anything was permanent at all in things, rather everything was in a state of flux, most obviously in the restless ever-changing fire. On the page that describes "Quantum Mechanics" we shall come to understand the frenzy of change in matter..

There were modern philosophers who embraced this notion to the point of claiming that there can be no such concept of a thing as Substance, no "thing" that acts, there is only activity without an agent. In this denial  they negate the reality of things humans perceive. Not because their perception is different in all humans, but because they cannot justify their admission of reality of both change and being.  

Scientific View - Space & Time Change:

Science has contributed much to the understanding of the nature of change in the realm of Space & Time. In defining the four (4) forces of nature (agents), science has enabled humans to comprehend the cause and effect of how & why things change (move, velocity, acceleration, position, etc.) and to comprehend the resulting effects.

There is too much to the topic of "Change in Space & Time" to cover in a single page. The details are available on several pages under "Science Section".

Below is information about Time & Space change together with the brief history of the contributors.

Classical View

in 1687 Newton published "Principia Mathematica" which laid the foundation for most of Classical Mechanics which dominated the scientific view of the physical Universe for the next three centuries. In this work, Newton described Universal Gravitation and the three laws of motion.

First law: Velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force, (an agent).

Second law: The acceleration " a" of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force " F" and inversely proportional to the mass " m", i.e., F = ma.

Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal, opposite and collinear.

Sir Issac Newton
1642 to 1727
Albert Einstein
1879 to 1955

Relativistic View

In 1921 Albert Einstein received the "Nobel Prize in Physics" for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the "photoelectric effect" which contributed pivotally to establishing the theory of "Quantum Mechanics". However, Einstein is most famous as the father of modern physics for "mass-energy equivalence" best known in the formula "E-mc2".

However, Einstein's two (2) theories (Special Relativity & General Relativity) provide most of the modern day insight to change as related to Time & Space. Out of these two theories we have come to better understand how change is relative in SpaceTime and how "gravity", a force agent, warps the fabric of space.

Quantum Mechanics

Max Planck came from a traditional, intellectual family. He had many talents and interests among which was music. He played three (3) instruments, composed songs and operas, but in In 1894 Planck began to concentrate upon physics and turned his attention to the problem of "black-body radiation". He had been commissioned by electric companies to create maximum light from light bulbs with minimum energy. The problem, "how does the intensity of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black-body depend on the frequency of the radiation (i.e., the color of the light) and the temperature of the body?". His research produced "Quantum Mechanics" and in 1918 Max Planck received the Nobel Prize in Physics.

Quantum packets exhibit a frenzy of change which to this day is yet to be understood in detail and to reconciled with Classical Mechanics.

Max Planck
Max Planck
1858 to 1947

Substantial change and the modern philosopher

So to the modern philosophers who embraced this notion that we cannot justify the admission of reality of both change and being, we ask................
Are we really forced to choose between change and being?.. Is there a way in which we can admit both?

Understanding both change and being can as explained in the following examples.

Acorn Seed Sprout Sapling
Acorn Seed to Tree Sprout Sapling
Young Tree Young Adult Mature
Young Tree Young Adult Mature Oak

Change occurs as the seed sprouts, grows to becomes a sapling, maturing to become a young adult, then in full act as an Oak tree. The being, an oak tree, as an acorn is in potency to become a mature oak tree and to fully fulfill its perfection in its existence as a mature oak. The being of the oak tree remains the same being when going through change.

So what do we mean when we say I've seen changes in a tree? We mean that there was first an initial stage in which there was a scene with a definite size, shape, and structure, secondly that there was some kind of process, and thirdly that there is a terminal stage at which the process arrives, in which the tree has quite different size, shape, yet its form remains the same. (We should note that the initial and terminal stages are not absolutely initial and terminal, but rather relative to each other in the process.) Most importantly, there must be some continuity between the initial stage, process, and the term. If, after the seed was planted someone came, replaced the seed with a sapling, then with a very small tree, then with a large tree, and finally with a very large one, we would not have an instance of real change, but rather an illusion of change since we didn't know that a manipulation took place. Thus, real change is not a mere succession of different things, but the essential or substantial change of the same thing.

For something to change essentially or substantially, is to become other than it was in its form or attributes. To become is to come – to – be, in other words, becoming is a process which terminates in being. Because there must be continuity throughout the process, and because the difference of initial and terminal stages cannot ground that continuity, there must be something,, namely, a subject which undergoes the process (change).

Act & Potency
A process where in a being possesses the capacity to fulfil its form to some degree.

     " I" -- the initial stage. The subject with its initial characteristics.
  "T" -- the terminal stage, the subject with differences after the change.
     " P" -- the process itself.
      C -- the common subject of the beginning, process, and end of change.

That which changes (C), before it changes, can be what it will be after the change.
So, at the initial stage
(I) of that which change begins, the thing is said to be in potency to the terminal stage (T). After the process when the subject (C) has a reached the stage
at which the process arrives,
it actually has the properties, characteristics, or perfection to which the process was directed. Therefore, the terminal stage
(T) is said to be in act.

Essentialists Dilemma

In response to the dilemma declared by the essentialists that was described above namely, that if real thing is"what it is", then change is impossible, this description attempts to show that the essentialists interpretation of reality is inadequate, or, to be real is simply to be, to have an act of existing. Secondly, we have discovered in our analysis of change that in addition to being in act there is also being in potency.
Consequently, there is something other or different from being – – that is,
being in act – – and that other is being in potency. Therefore, we can also define change as the process of coming – to – in act what something was in potency.

Characteristics of Change
Three concepts closely associated with change are detailed in the page on "Principles".

Identity: is the sameness, the oneness of a thing with itself
Distinction: is the lack of Identity, it always implies plurality and division of some sort or other.
Difference: can mean the same as distinction with some of its uses, but often difference is used to express the reason for a distinction.

Child  Actress Starlette In Death
Child Actress Starlet In Death
Substantial (Accidental) Change -- Attributes frequently change in Beings.
As such a Being's Substance is modified in some definite way, The nature of Substance is to be in the subject of modification and in that sense change is inherent in substance. Thus, with Substantial change the existing form does not change, but remains the same throughout the Substantial change such as in the growth of living things.

Fetus Baby Child Teen Agers
Fetus Baby Child Teenagers
Young Lady Adults Seniors
Young Adult Adults Seniors

Superficial Change -- Neither the properties (Existence or Form) nor Substance or Attributes of a thing change in the course of Superficial change. That which changes is the outward appearance of the Being. These changes are prevalent at Halloween when costumes disguise the person beneath the makeup.

Superficial Change
Superficial Change

Agency rules in the realm of change. Humans, intuitively and through experience, come to understand and accept causality as a result of an agent, the cause, which produces an effect, the result.

Causality is the relationship between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the second event is understood as a consequence of the first. In this understanding of the consequential termination of these events, humans recognize the termination as an end, a result or an effect.
Thus, humans, in their reorganization of this dynamic have come to call it


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